Relevant steps in water treatment in the energy industry.
The water is initially passed through screens, rakes, and other devices to remove larger solids such as leaves, branches, sand, and sludge.
Removal of dissolved substances
The water is then passed through various filters to remove dissolved substances such as salts, minerals, organic compounds, and bacteria. Methods such as activated carbon filtration, reverse osmosis, ion exchange, and ultrafiltration are employed for this purpose.
If the water is still not clean enough, it is treated with chemicals to remove unwanted contaminants. Methods such as precipitation, neutralization, oxidation, and chlorination are commonly employed for this purpose.